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Download No 5, 2013
No 5

Economic Policy


Alexander SURINОV
On the Development of the System of National Accounts of Russia
In the modern world economic statistics is based on the System of National Accounts (SNA), a set of balance sheets and methods of their compilation which provides formation of official statistical data on gross domestic product and other macroeconomic indicators. At present time national accounts are compiled under the standards of SNA adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission in 1993. National accounts permit­ to carry out proper comparisons of the levels of countries economic development and their shares in the world’s GDP. National accounts indicators are widely used in international rankings and indices, such as Human Development Index, business indices, in calculation of contributions and quotas of countries in international organisations and foundations. Introduction of SNA in Russia started in 1991 with the attempts to evaluate national GDP. Prior to this macroeconomic indicators were calculated in accordance with the theory of material production of Karl Marx. Transition to the free market economy, intensification of foreign economic relations and deideologization of statistics fostered introduction of international standards into the statistical practice of Russia; SNA is of major importance among them.
International organisations have pointed out that Russia meets the minimum requirements of the implementation of the SNA adopted by the UN Statistical Commission. However, in February 2009, at the fortieth session of the UN Statistical Commission 2008 SNA was unanimously adopted as a new international statistical standard for national accounts. UN member states were proposed to work out plans of transition to the 2008 SNA standards and to proceed to their practical implementation in 2014. Russia didn’t succeed yet to carry out completely all the requirements of the previous SNA while the standards of the 2008 SNA should be implemented. The new SNA is focused on the evaluation of new economic phenomena, more comprehensive coverage of economic transactions, more detailed and prompt development of accounts. Transition to the 2008 SNA will permit to obtain more comprehensive statistical description of national economy and improve international comparability and transparency of indicators.
Key words: national economy, statistics, System of National Accounts, international statistical­ standard.

Alexander Surinоv
, Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Head of the Federal Service of State Statistics of Russian Federation
(bld 1, 39, Myasnitskaya ul., Moscow, 107450, Russian Federation).


Alexander KNOBEL
The Risks of Fiscal Policy in Countries Rich in Natural Resources
The article examines the risks of fiscal policy in rich in natural resources countries, which include Russia. It is shown that the consequences for the Russian federal budget may be decline in oil prices. In the context of the phenomena characteristic of resource-dependent economies, the author demonstrates the presence of lower rates of long-term economic growth. The macroeconomic and institutional aspects of the resource curse, the role of sovereign wealth funds in the formation of fiscal policy are discussed, especially their institutional value.
Key words: resource curse, budget policy, institutions, economic growth, sovereign funds.

Alexander Knobel, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Head of the Laboratory of International Trade, Scientific ­direction “Real Sector”, Gaidar Institute (5, Gazetny per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).


Soviet Railways: The Myth of the “Golden Age”
The paper considers some of the problems of rail transport in the Soviet planned economy. The problems of shortage of rolling stock, unsustainable transport service quality and problems with investments in infrastructure development in 1960-1980s.
Key words: railway transport, planned economy, deficit, the quality of transport services, rail capacity, reform of rail transport.

Farid Khusainov, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Associate Professor of the Chair of “Economics, Finance and Management in Transport” of the Russian open Academy of Transport MSURI (ROAT MIIT)
(22/2, ul. Chasovaya, Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).

Tax Policy

Effect of Economic Trends on the Dynamics of Tax Revenues
In the article was carried on comprehensive analysis of factors, which influence growth rate of tax revenues. Since the macroeconomic indices had slowed theirs pace, imbalances of economic growth came out. By negative growth of industrial sector and low investment activity of companies, personal income and consumer demand show significant increase. This holds the real GDP growth rate at 1.4%. So there is a conclusion to make, that these multidirectional trends of macroeconomic indices have an impact on tax revenue rates. The growth show personal income tax and property tax, while the main taxes which form the state budget and reflect situation in the industrial sector demonstrate the negative growth.
Key words: tax revenues, economic growth, macroeconomic indicators.

Michael Mishustin,  Dr. Sci. (Econ.), head of the Federal Tax Service
(23, Neglinnaya ul., Moscow, 127381, Russian Federation).

Antitrust Policy

Business Practices of Business Entities — the Direction of Competition Policy
There is description of the basis and suggested by antitrust authorities instruments for prevention and suppression of discriminating practice on the side of dominating economic entities in the article. It has been identified possible correlation between reglamented trade practices and corporate policy on antitrust compliance. Probable negative consequences of reglamented trade practices elaboration and enforcement have been revealed.
Key words: Federal Antitrust Agency, dominating position, business entities, trade practices.

Andrei Tsyganov, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Deputy Head of the Federal Antimonopoly Service
(11, Sadovo-Kudrinskaya ul., Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation).
Regulations of Private Companies’ Trade Policies: Theory, Practice and Recommendations for Antitrust
This article examines applied and theoretical aspects of the anti-monopoly regulations applied to private companies’ trade policies and it shows available alternative instruments of antitrust policy and options for regulating companies’ trade practices. The article presents the possible impacts anti-monopoly regulations have on companies’ trade practices in the context of choice of mechanism of transaction governance. The paper demonstrates that emerging practice of antimonopoly regulations shows evidence of a bias of the Russian antitrust toward economic regulation. One of the results of the implementation of the regulations of companies’ trade practices is the effect of “creeping regulation”. The intervention of the anti-monopoly service in any company’s operations might be the result of substitution of its object: instead of the protection and development of conditions for competition the antimonopoly agency protects the interests of some consumer groups, providing for their demand and satisfaction of contract terms and trading conditions with partners. Using the tools of the transaction costs economics has made it possible to indicate the effect of shrinking of structural alternatives for transaction governance.
Key words: trading practice, transaction, competition policy, non-discriminatory access, price control.

Tatiana Radchenko, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), research assistant of the Center for Competition
and Economic Regulation Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration; head of Directorate for Competition Policy of Analytical Centre for the Government of the Russian Federation
(12, prosp. Akademika Sakharova, Moscow, 107078, Russian Federation).

Andrei Shastitko,  Dr. Sci. (Econ.), professor, director of the Center for Competition
and Economic Regulation Research, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration(82, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 117571, Russian Federation); Head of Competition and Industrial Policy Department of Economic Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Svetlana AVDASHEVA, Alexander KURDIN
Objectives of Trade Policies of Private Companies as an Instrument of Regulation and  Competition: World Experience and Attempt to Forecast
New amendments to the federal law “On Protection of Competition” (“The Fourth Antitrust Package”), which institutionalize trade practices in Russia, have not been subject to the assessment of conformity between goals, methods and consequences of the regulations proposed. The purpose of this article is to assess initiatives to introduce trade policies for Russian private companies on the basis of comparison of experience recently available, similar rules introduced worldwide and predictions of economic theory about the possible effects of trade policies regulation. There are no evident gains from prescribed trade practices at the moment. At the same time, unfavorable side effects of trade practices are likely.
Key words: trade policies, collusion, abuse of dominance, competition.

Svetlana Avdasheva, Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Full Professor, National Research University — Higher School of Economics
(20, Miasnitskaya st., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation).

Alexander Kurdin, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), head of the Directorate for Strategic Studies in Energy Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation; research fellow at the Center for competition and economic regulation, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration  
(82, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 117571, Russian Federation).


Regional Policy

Creative Class and Creative City: the Russian Dimension
The article discusses how Russian cities can attract and prevent outmigration of educated and ambitious young people — the creative class which is the basis of modern innovative economy. In the West this problem was being discussed by experts for a long time. There are several different approaches to this issue; the most famous one belongs to Richard Florida. The authors of the article analyze the applicability of these approaches in the Russian context on the basis of the research of life strategies of creative youth in three Russian cities: Chelyabinsk, Perm and Novosibirsk. Special attention is paid to Perm “cultural revolution” the most prominent attempt to implement the theory of creative class into practice in Russia.

Irina Starodubrovskaya, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Director of the Center for Political Economy and Regional Development, Gaidar Institute ((5, Gazetny per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).

Dina Lobodanova, research fellow, Institute for Applied Economic Studies of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (82 bld. 1, Vernadskogo prosp., Moscow, 119571, Russian Federation).


Analytics and Forecast

Professional Learned Societies in American Science: Relevant Experience for Russia?
The article analyzes activities of American learned societies and associations as institutional components of civil society in science. In the center of attention are forms of interaction of learned societies with government, and methods of evaluation of their outcomes. The recent history of revival of Russian learned societies is described and those elements of American experience are identified that may be useful for Russia.
Key words: science, professional learned societies, civil society, USA, Russia.

Irina Dezhina,  Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Head of Division, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, RAS
(23, ul. Profsoyuznaya, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation), Head of Research Group on Science and Industrial Policy, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (SkTech)
(100, ul. Novaya, Skolkovo, Odintsovo district, Moscow region, 143025, Russian Federation).
Alexander DEGTYAREV, Rustam MALIKOV, Konstantin GRISHIN
Mutual Loyalty as a Mechanism for the Modernization of the System of Interaction of Business and Government: a Regional Perspective
The problems of modernization of the regional system of cooperation between business and government in the transition of the Russian economy to a sustainable growth model based on innovative renewal and diversification. Examines various aspects of modern practices of power relationships and business structures in the regions and municipalities. Discusses the need to redesign the system of the Russian business dealings with the regional authorities of the format “business—the slave power” in the format of the “business—partner of power”. A new approach to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the interaction of government and business organizations, the foundation of which is laid criterion of mutual loyalty. Substantiates the institutional model of the interaction of business organizations and regional authorities with a view of informal contacts.
Key words: modernization of the regional system of relationships between business and government, the effectiveness of the interaction of government and business organizations, mutual loyalty, informal interaction.

Alexander Degtyarev,  Dr. Sci. (Econ.), professor of “Economics and Management”.
Rustam Malikov,  Dr. Sci. (Econ.), professor, head of the department “Economics and Management”.

Konstantin Grishin, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), assistant professor of “Economics and Management”.
Ufa State University of Economics and Service (145, ul. Chernyshevskogo­, Ufa, 450078, Russian Federation).

“Brain Drain” and “Sustainable Development” in Russia in the Context of Globalization
Touching the problems of transition to innovative development the author draws attention to the problems originating from the 80s and 90s of the twentieth century: avalanche-like “brain drain” during the transformational crisis and the “sustainable development” raised by the RIO-92 — both relating to future generations. The author argues that light-weight relationship to the problem of “brain drain” is unacceptable, which manifests itself in a sustained trend to change the translation of the term with more emphasis on the physiology rather than intellect. The arguments in support of this position are given. Common features relating to the problems of “brain drain” and “sustainable development”, allowing to identify pain points that prevent the transition of the international community and Russia to the path of sustainable development are identified.
Key words: innovative development, “human capital”, intellectual emigration, the “brain drain”, “sustainable development”.

Svetlana Dolmatova, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), a senior researcher at the Department of global problems, Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAS)
(23, ul. Profsoyuznaya, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation).

Classics of Economics

Essays in Political Economy (Theoretical an Applied Aspects).
Chapter 6. Political Economy and Land (The Ending)
In this chapter, the author examines the political and economic basis of land ownership. Earth is not a manmade good, but investing some money can improve its properties. In addition the value of land can be increased as a result of improved transportation and other types of infrastructure. The owner (lessee) extracts in the production of economic rent, the value of which is the amount of output that exceeds the size of a proper remuneration for the farmer.
Key words: political economy, land, economic rent, farmer.

John Cairnes (1823—1875), the British economist.